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FIRE SAFETY PLANNING FOR INDUSTRIAL OCCUPANCIES
 
This guideline is intended to assist owners and managers of industrial operations to develop and implement effective Fire Safety Plans for their businesses. The guideline also provides guidance for owners on how to comply with the various aspects of the USA Fire Code that apply to their property. The guideline has been designed in an easy to use, step-by-step format, with checklists and examples that can be useful for preparing a comprehensive Fire Safety Plan. 

SCOPE OF FIRE SAFETY PLANNING
Fire safety is an important responsibility for everyone. The consequences of poor fire safety practices and a lack of emergency planning are especially serious in properties where processes or quantities of stored materials could pose a serious threat to the community and environment in the event of an emergency. 

In an effort to prevent fires and minimize the damage from fires when they occur, owners and operators of industrial occupancies are encouraged to develop and implement Fire Safety Plans for their property. This guideline provides a simple 10 step process and checklists that can help owners and operators put together a comprehensive Fire Safety Plan for their workplace. 

General Requirements For Fire Safety Planning 
A Fire Safety Plan is required under Section 2.8 and other areas of the USA Fire Code. It must be prepared, approved and implemented in the following industrial properties: (Refer to Section 2.8 "Emergency Planning" of the USA Fire Code for the actual requirements.) 

buildings or open areas where quantities of flammable and combustible liquids exceed 500 L in total or exceed 250 L of Class 1 Liquids; 

laboratories where flammable and combustible liquids are used or handled (Article 4.12.4.1.); 

buildings or premises containing 4 storeys or more, including storeys below grade; 

outdoor tire storage yards regulated by Subsection 3.5.3.; 

buildings containing a high hazard industrial occupancy (F1), having an occupant load exceeding 25 people (i.e., bulk plants for flammable liquids, warehouses for hazardous substances, cereal mills, feed mills, flour mills, grain elevators, chemical manufacturing and processing plants, distilleries, dry cleaning plants using flammable or explosive solvents or cleaners, lacquer, paint, varnish and pyroxylin product factories, rubber processing plants and spray painting operations); 

buildings containing a medium hazard industrial occupancy (F2), having an occupant load exceeding 100 people (i.e., aircraft hangers, cold storage plants, dry cleaning establishments not using flammable or explosive solvents or cleaners, freight depots, laboratories, laundries [except self-service], planing mills, printing plants, repair garages, tire storage, warehouses and woodworking factories); and 

buildings containing a low hazard industrial occupancy, having an occupant load exceeding 300 people (i.e., creameries, laboratories, power plants, storage garages and warehouses).

In a court of law, the definition of "owner" could be interpreted to mean the owner whose name is on title (an individual or individuals, a corporation, etc.). "Owner" could also include any other person in control of the property such as an executive officer of a corporation owning the building, administrator, or even a maintenance supervisor. Penalties for non-compliance by an individual can be as high as $25,000 per count and/or imprisonment for up to one year. Penalties for corporations may be a fine of up to $50,000 per count. 

Owners, managers and administrators of an industrial occupancy should be thoroughly familiar with their responsibilities under the USA Fire Code, since contravention of any provision can result in penalties as listed above. 

In addition to the requirements within the USA Fire Code, the local fire department under the provisions of the Fire Protection and Prevention Act, 1997 may require the owner to develop and implement a Fire Safety Plan. 

Owners should be proactive in the area of fire safety by developing and implementing a Fire Safety Plan, even in premises that are not required by law to have one. 

The owner or an experienced business manager can prepare a Fire Safety Plan by following the steps outlined in this guideline and in consultation with the local fire department. In some instances, a qualified professional (Engineer, Architect, fire safety consultant, etc.), may be consulted to assist with development of the plan or portions of the plan. 

Developing and implementing a Fire Safety Plan demonstrates an interest in promoting fire safety. In return for resources used to develop a Fire Safety Plan, the incidence and impact of fire will be reduced. 

In instances where the Fire Safety Plan is required by the USA Fire Code or the local fire department, a copy of the plan must be submitted to the Chief Fire Official for approval and be retained on site in an approved location. Once approved by the Chief Fire Official, the owner is responsible for implementing all aspects of the Fire Safety Plan. 

What is a Fire Safety Plan? 
A Fire Safety Plan is a detailed document designed to deal with all aspects of fire safety relating to a specific building or property. The document is intended to be a reference manual outlining the fire safety practices to be routinely used. Each Fire Safety Plan should include the following information: 

(Review the following information now, and use this checklist as you prepare your Fire Safety Plan to be sure the plan addresses each of these issues. Refer to the actual USA Fire Code Requirements outlined in Section 2.8.) 

Every Fire Safety Plan should include: 
emergency procedures to be used in case of fire, including: sounding the alarm, notifying the fire department, provisions for access for fire fighting, instructing occupants on procedures to be followed when the fire alarm sounds, evacuating endangered persons, and confining, controlling and extinguishing the fire; 
instructions on ways to prevent fires and methods to control fire hazards throughout the business; 
information about the appointment, organization and instruction of designated supervisory staff and other occupants, including their related fire safety duties and responsibilities; 
the method and frequency of conducting fire drills; 
detailed maintenance procedures for fire protection systems and building features; 
the identification of alternate fire safety measures in the event of a temporary shutdown of fire protection equipment or systems, so that occupant safety can be assured; 
instructions and schematic diagrams describing the type, location and operation of building fire emergency systems; 
in outdoor tire storage yards include procedures for notifying the fire department and assisting them in accessing the property for water tanker shuttle operations and fire fighting purposes. 

Benefits of Implementing a Fire Safety Plan 
Reduces the incidence of fire 
Promotes fire hazard identification and elimination 
Promotes employee safety and awareness 
Increases employee morale by allaying safety concerns 
Coordinates business and fire department resources during a fire emergency 
Reduces the potential impact of a fire on the business and community (injuries, dollar losses, liability, etc.) 
Enhances Fire Code compliance

DEFINITIONS 
The following definitions have been copied from Section 1.2 of the USA Fire Code to assist you in understanding the meaning of these words and phrases where they are used in this guideline and in the regulation. The definitions are intended to help people understand their meaning in the context of the regulation. 

Approved: means approved by theChief Fire Official. 

Building: means any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy. 

Check: means visual observation to ensure the device or system is in place and is not obviously damaged or obstructed. 

Chief Fire Official: means the assistant to the Fire Marshal who is the Municipal Fire Chief or a member or members of the fire department appointed by the Municipal Fire Chief under Subsection 1.1.8. or a person appointed by the Fire Marshal under Subsection 1.1.8. 

Combustible Liquid: means any liquid having a flash point at or above 37.8 C and below 93.3 C. 

Flammable Liquid: means a liquid having a flash point below 37.8 C and having a vapour pressure not more than 275.8 kPa (absolute) at 37.8 C as determined by ASTM D 323, "Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Products (Reid Method)". 

Flash Point: means the minimum temperature at which a liquid within a container gives off vapour in sufficient concentration to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid. 

Inspect: means physical examination to determine that the device or system will apparently perform in accordance with its intended function. 

Owner: means any person, firm or corporation having control over any portion of the building or property under consideration and includes the persons in the building or property. 

Supervisory Staff: means those occupants of a building who have some delegated responsibility for the fire safety of other occupants under the Fire Safety Plan and may include the fire department where the fire department agrees to accept these responsibilities. 

Test: means the operation of a device or system to ensure that it will perform in accordance with its intended operation or function. 

Vapour Pressure: means the pressure exerted by a liquid as determined by ASTM D 323, "Vapor Pressure of Petroleum Product" (Reid Method). 
 
 
     
 
THE TEN STEP PROCESS 
The following synopsis outlines the Ten Step Process to developing a Fire Safety Plan. 

Step 1 - CONDUCT FIRE SAFETY AUDIT
Identify all fire risks and employee resources 

Step 2 - APPOINTMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF EMERGENCY SUPERVISORY STAFF 
Establish supervisory staff structure and related responsibilities 

Step 3 - DEVELOP EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
Establish procedures for what to do in case of fire 

Step 4 - FIRE DRILL PROCEDURES AND TRAINING
Train for effective response 

Step 5 - MAINTENANCE OF BUILDING FACILITIES AND FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
Check, inspect, test and maintain

Step 6 - ALTERNATE MEASURES FOR TEMPORARY SHUTDOWN OF FIRE OF FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT OR SYSTEM
What to do when emergency warning or suppression systems are down 

Step 7 - CONTROL OF FIRE HAZARDS
Avoid, prevent, reduce and control all fire hazards 

Step 8 - FIRE DEPARTMENT ACCESS FOR FIRE FIGHTING AND RELATED FIRE SUPPRESSION INFORMATION
Meet the needs of your Fire Department

Step 9 - PREPARING SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS AND SITE PLAN
Know your property; be prepared

Step 10 - POSTING OF EMERGENCY PROCEDURES AND EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS
Post the Fire Safety Plan, Emergency Procedures and phone numbers in key locations
 
 
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